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Second Semester Terms
Thaddeus Stevens
Radical republic congressman
Ku Klux Klan
Anti-black terrorist organization established by Nathan Bedford Forrest
Black codes
Legislation passed under presidential reconstruction to re-enslave freedmen
Jim Fisk
Financier and Banker responsible for the Black Friday conspiracy
Jay Gould
Railroad magnate master mind of Black Friday conspiracy
William Marcy Tweed
Corrupt boss of Tammany Hall caricatured by Thomas Nast
Horace Greeley
NY Editor quoted "go west young man" Presidential Candidate
Crédit Mobilier
Scandalous construction company employed by Union Pacific
Leland Stanford
One of big four of Central Pacific RR later governor of California
Cornelius Vanderbilt
Shipping an railroad owner who Controlled NY Central RR
Alexander Graham Bell
Inventor of Telephone
Thomas Alva Edison
Inventor of the phonograph, incandescent light bulb, motion picture, & Dictaphone
Knights of Labor
Oliver Kelley's successful labor organization discredited by the Haymarket bombing
Andrew Carnegie
Steel industry pioneer whose vertical integration of production & distribution dominated the world market.
John D. Rockefeller
Old financier whose Standard Oil Corporation controlled most of the nations refining and distribution capacity.
J. Pierpont Morgan
Corporate banker whose trusts holding companies restrained competition an created virtual monopolies.
Samuel Gompers
Founding president of the American Federation of Labor
Jane Addams
Social worker & reformer whose Hull House began the settlement house movement.
Booker Taliaferro Washington
Ex slave who became the headmaster of Tuskegee Institute, proposed the Atlanta compromise, & following the death of Frederick Douglass became the most famous African-American.
W. E. B. DuBois
African-American founder of the Niagra movement which challenged segregation and helped establish the NAACP
NAACP
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People was established to secure equal rights for all citizens.
Ida B. Wells
African-American civil rights & anti-lynching advocate, feminist, and a founder of the NAACP
G. W. Carver
African-American chemist and plant scientist at Tuskegee Institute.
Mark Twain (S. L. Clemens)
American humorist and social critic author of Huckleberry Finn.
Stephen Crane
Writer of The Red Badge of Courage and Maggie, girl of the streets promoting realism in literature.
Henry James
Psychological novelist and critic of gilded age society in such novels as the American & Washington Square.
Elizabeth Cady Stanton
Feminist convener of the Seneca Falls convention. Co-founder of National Woman's Suffrage Assn.
Susan B. Anthony
Abolitionist, temperance advocate, feminist. Co-founder of National Woman's Suffrage Assn.
Winslow Homer
Painter & illustrator known for maritime subjects.
Frederick Remington
Illustrator sculptor of the vanishing west he popularized that subject and the war with Spain.
Phillip Sheridan
Civil War Cavalry General who successfully subdued the plains Indians in three wars
George Armstrong Custer
Commander of 7th cavalry regiment massacred at the Battle of the Little Big Horn
William F. Cody
Buffalo Hunter, Army Scout in the Red River War, & Wild West Showman "Buffalo Bill."
Sitting Bull
Shaman of the Hunkpapa Lakota Sioux at Little Big Horn.
Crazy Horse
War Chief of Oglala Lakota at Little Big Horn.
Chief Joseph
Chief of Nez Perce in their attempt to escape reservation confinement.
Buffalo soldiers
African American soldiers in the 9th & 10th cavalry and 24th & 25th infantry during the Indian Wars
Geronimo
Fearsome renegade Chief of the Chiricahua Apache
John Wesley Powell
Surveyor and first descender of the Colorado river through the Grand Canyon.
Frederick Jackson Turner
Wisconsin Professor who formulated a thesis of the Frontier as safety valve for the 1893 Columbian Exposition.
William Jennings Bryan
Pro free silver Populist/Democratic candidate in the 1896 election, Wilson's first Sec. of State & later anti-evolutionist friend of the Court in the Scopes trial.
Yellow press
Sensationalist newspapers designed to attract readers and advertising with comic pages and manufactured stories.
Joseph Pulitzer
Editor of the New York World.
William Randolph Hearst
Editor of the New York Journal
Spanish American War
American adventure in imperialism by which the US acquired the Philippines, Guam, & Puerto Rico.
Alfred Thayer Mahan
Author of The Influence of Sea Power on History & Captain at the Naval War College
George Dewey
Commander of the American fleet at the Battle of Manila Bay.
Theodore Roosevelt
Activist & progressive President
The Square Deal
Roosevelt's campaign slogan promising equitable dealing with all citizens.
Panama Canal
Trans-isthmian Canal advocated and built by the US under the leadership of Theodore Roosevelt
Walter Reed
Army doctor who discovered the cause of yellow fever.
Muckrakers
Investigative journalists who exposed threats to public interest in politics and business.
Louis Brandeis
Progressive who won Muller v. Oregon, helped outline the Federal Reserve Act, & was appointed to the Supreme Court by Wilson
Federal Reserve Act
Created a central bank owned by other banks and backed in part with federal securities.
Frances Willard
Temperance advocate and founder of the Women's Christian Temperance Union.
Upton Sinclair
Muckraking journalist who exposed unsanitary conditions in the Meat Packing industry in his novel The Jungle.
Gifford Pinchot
America's first forester whose conflict with Sec Ballinger contributed to the Roosevelt-Taft split.
Jack London
Popular writer in the genre of wilderness fiction &naturalism.
John Muir
Conservationist founder of the Sierra Club instrumental in the formation of Yosemite Park.
Eugene V. Debs
Socialist lawyer and presidential candidate arrested for his vocal opposition to WWI
John J.(Blackjack) Pershing
Commander of the American Expeditionary Force in WWI
The Versailles Treaty
Peace treaty & charter of the League of Nations intended to end WWI & secure lasting peace.
Henry Cabot Lodge
Chairman of the Senate Foreign Relations committee whose reservations helped defeat the Versailles Treaty.
Alfred E. Smith
Happy Warrior governor of NY, Presidential candidate, a founder of the liberty party
Douglas MacArthur
General, removed bonus marchers, cmdr W. Pacific, gov of Japan, UN cmdr Korean War, Fired by Truman for his defiance of the C in C.
Bonus March
WWI Veterans who went to Washington for relief and early payment of bonus in 1932.
New Deal
Agencies and Policies of relief, recovery and reform instituted by FDR & Congress
Eleanor Roosevelt
Legs and eyes of FDR, Most traveled first lady to that period.
Huey Long
Louisiana populist politician or demagogue assassinated in 1935.
Social Security Act
Old age, survivors, disability, and unemployment insurance.
John Steinbeck
Author of Grapes of Wrath capturing the conditions of migrant farm workers.
Joseph Stalin
Soviet Dictator forced collectivization of farms, purges, nonaggression treaty, cold war.
Benito Mussolini
Fascist dictator of Italy whose black shirts were models for Hitler SA.
Winston Churchill
Conservative Prime Minister of Britain who stood against Hitler, originated the phrase Iron Curtain.
Battle of the Bulge
American response to Hitler's December 1944 counterattack in the Ardennes forest.
Hirohito
Emperor of Japan co opted by the US to aid reconstruction of Japan
Enola Gay
Airplane that dropped the 1st atomic bomb on Japan at Hiroshima
Adolph Hitler
Nazi dictator chiefly responsible for WWII and genocide against European Jews.
Chiang Kai-Shek
Leader of Kuomintang government of China defeated by Mao Zedong
Bernard Montgomery
British commander in North Africa and Europe.
Erwin Rommel
Nazi Blitzkrieg commander organizer of the Africa and defense of Fortress Europe.
Dwight D. Eisenhower
Commander of American invasion of North Africa and Allied invasion of Europe, later president.
Geo. S. Patton
Flamboyant tank General known as old blood and guts. Relieved Bastogne in the Battle of the Bulge.
Taft-Hartley Act
1947 act prohibiting closed shops and allowing the President to enjoin strikes against the national interest for a 90 day cooling off period.
Berlin Airlift
US coordinated air supply of the essentials for life in Berlin from 1948-49 when Soviets cut off ground transportation to the western zones within its sector of Germany.