Hernando de Soto
First European to reach the Mississippi River

King of the Aztecs

Walter Raleigh
founder of the lost colony on Roanoke Island

John Smith
saved Jamestown with the “he who does not work does not eat” regime

She was an Indian Princess who helped Jamestown Settlers around John Smith's era. She is most known for saving John's life. (1595-1617)

John Rolfe

He is known for cultivating tobacco as an "export crop" in the Colony of Virginia. He was the first to do so and a successful businessman. (1585-1622)

Martin Luther
He is known for starting the Protestant Reformation. He was a theology professor who wrote the Lutheran Bible so it could be accessed by the common man. He also wrote the 95 theses. (1483-1546)

William Bradford
was the self-educated governor of Plymouth Plantation elected for 30 consecutive years


They were at their strongest in the 16th and 17th century. They believed in a highly moral lifestyle. They wanted to purify the church of England.

John Winthrop
Governor of the Massachusetts Bay Company

Anne Hutchinson
She was a pioneer in America and wound up being the minister to a dissident church which was illegal at the time. She was banned from her colony because of this. Today she is recognized as being a feminist of that day and age. (1591-1643)

Roger Williams
Minister expelled to Rhode Island and allowed religious dissent there

Bacon’s Rebellion
resistance of western settlers against Indians and eastern authority

Jonathan Edwards
preached a new kind of sermon that stirred the emotions

Benjamin Franklin
American statesman and printer who wrote Poor Richard's Almanac

Proclamation of 1763
intended to prevent warfare between settlers and Indians

La Salle

There are 8 famous "La Salle's" through history but the most recognizable one is Rene-Robert La Salle who was a famous French Explorer of North America. Who first navigated the length of the Mississippi (1643-1687)

French and Indian War
ended French control of the North American continent.

Sam Adams
American Revolutionary who founded the Son's of liberty and the committee of correspondence. Organizer of the "Sons of Liberty" and the circular lettter.

Paul Revere
He was a famed and skilled silversmith who took up Arms to fight against the British. He was known for his ride through Lexington and Concord. (1735-1818). Attempted to warn Lexington and Concord of British assault.

Lexington & Concord
First battles of the American revolution


Marquis Da Lafayette was one of the few French who traveled to America to aid in the war who wasn't stuck up. He was George Washington's protege, he was wounded in the war but returned to stand by his "Father's" side and help see through America's independence. (1757-1834). French aristocrat who early came to support the revolution.

Thomas Paine
patriot author of Common Sense


victory which persuaded the French form an alliance with America

Benedict Arnold
American war hero who betrayed Washington at West Poin

Richard Henry Lee
He was an American Statesman from Virginia. He was for independence in America and signed the Declaration of Independence. He served a one year term as the President of the Continental Congress. (1732-1794)

Patrick Henry
declared,“Give me Liberty or give me Death

John Paul Jones
He was a legendary Naval Officer who turned the tides of a naval battle against the British Ship known as the Serapis. (1747-1792)


He was known as Gentleman Johnny, he fought at the battle of Albany and surrendered 6,000 soldiers during the American Revolutionary War. Attacked New York from Cananda.


British general who surrendered at the Battle of Yorktown in 1781

Nathaniel Greene
He was an American Revolutionary War general who was considered George Washington's most trusted General. (1742-1786). Washington's most reliable Lieutenant General the Fighting Quaker.

Northwest Ordinance of 1787

outlined the process by which new states would gain admission to the union. Provided organization for new states under the articles of Confederation.

Daniel Shays’s Rebellion

An uprising of farmers in western Massachusetts seeking debt relief. Rebelled against Massachusetts taxation policy.

Alexander Hamilton
1st secretary of the Treasury. Washington aide advocate of the Constitution.

Whiskey rebellion
A rebellion linked to the government deciding to tax whiskey to pay off National Debts.

John Jay

He was Governor of New York, opposed Slavery, leader of the Federalist Party and was for the American Revolution in the prime of the war. (1745-1829). Negotiated an extremely unpopular treaty with Great Britian.

John Marshall
He was an American Statesman and was the Chief Justice of Supreme Court from 1801-1835. He secured the power of the Court and extended that of the Federal government. Jefferson's cousin. Wrote the courts in Marbury vs. Madison case.

Marbury v Madison
This particular court ruling was linked to Judicial Review. Established the supreme courts right of judicial review.

Louisiana Purchase
Thomas Jefferson purchased the Louisiana Territory from Napoleon at the bargain rate of three cents an acre.

Meriwether Lewis
He was the partner of Clark and helped him explore Louisiana. (1774-1809)

Wm Clark

Clark was apart of the famed Lewis and Clark Expedition. (1779-1838). Co-commander of the corps of discovery on its mission of 1804-1806.


She accompanied Lewis and Clark on their expedition and Clark helped deliver her child. (1788-1812)


He was the Native American leader of the Shawnee and opposed the US in 1812. (1768-1813)

Francis Scott Key
He wrote The Star Spangled Banner. (1779-1843)

Oliver Hazard Perry
He was the Hero of Lake Eerie and a legend of the War of 1812. (1785-1819). American commander of the US fleet at the Battle of Lake Erie during the War of 1812.

Andrew Jackson
The Seventh President of the US, he was known for the Jacksonian Era of the US. (1767-1845). Crushed Redsticks at Horseshoe Bend, won the Battle of New Orleans.

Missouri Compromise of 1820: Agreement balancing free and slave states and setting limit on the expansion of slavery at 36 degrees 30'.

McCulloch vMD Case of the Marshall court demonstrating the supremacy clause & the power of the interstate commerce clause. Determined that Congress had a right and establish a bank and that federal law was supreme.

Monroe Doctrine
Written by John Adams to discourage further colonization in the New World. America declares the Western Hemisphere off limits to European intererence.

John C. Calhoun
War Hawk, Secretary of War, VP and Southern Nationalist one of great triumvirate

Daniel Webster .
Lawyer congressman Secretary of State, one of great triumvirate. Massachusetts orator staunch nationalist and member of the great triumvirate.

Henry Clay
5 time presidential candidate known as the great compromiser one of great triumvirate. An 1812 "war hawk" the Great Compromiser.

Nicholas Biddle
President of the 2nd Bank of the US

Sam Houston
Victor at San Jacinto & President of TX

David Crockett
Former TN congressman killed at the Alamo

Stephen F. Austin
Established American settlements in TX

Eli Whitney
Invented the cotton gin and pioneered interchangeable parts

Samuel F. B. Morse
Invented the telegraphy and it eponymous code

Noah Webster
Author of the American Speller and Dictionary used in American schools.

Dorothea Dix
Reformer of Prisons and Mental Hospitals

Seneca Falls convention 1st national women's rights gathering. Produced the woman's declaration of rights and sentiments.

James Fenimore Cooper Author of Leatherstocking tales. Author of the Last of the Mohicans, was the 1st popular novelist writing on American subjects.

Ralph Waldo Emerson
Transcendentalist & author of the American Scholar

Henry David Thoreau
Transcendentalist author of On Walden Pond and An Essay on Civil Disobedience

Walt Whitman
Romantic American poet of Leaves of Grass

Herman Melville
Author of Moby Dick based on the shipwreck of the whaler Essex.

Nathaniel Hawthorne
Democratic political functionary and Author of The Scarlet Letter.

Nat Turner

Slave preacher who led the nation's largest slave insurrection in South Hampton Va in 1831.

William Lloyd Garrison
Abolitionist editor of The Liberator calling for immediate uncompensated emancipation of the slaves.

Sojourner Truth
African American former slave and Abolitionist and women's rights advocate.

Frederick Douglass
Spokesman for Abolitionist causes. Author of famous autobiography

Santa Anna
President of Mexico

Winfield Scott
Commander of the American army that captured Mexico City, Old Fuss and Feathers

Mexican War
Mr. Polk's War to acquire California

Zachary Taylor
Hero of Buena Vista known as "Old Rough and Ready" Elected President as a Whig.

Harriet Tubman
Conductor on the Underground railroad who led hundred of the enslaved to freedom

Matthew C. Perry
American Navy Commodore who opened Japan to American trade

Stephen A. Douglas.
The "Little Giant," ramrod of the Compromise of 1850, and promoter of the Kansas-Nebraska Act

Kansas-Nebraska act
Provided for popular sovereignty on the issue of slavery in the territories

Harriet Beecher Stowe
Wrote Uncle Tom's Cabin opposing slavery.

John Brown
Violent radical abolitionist who raided Harper's Ferry in 1859

John C. Fremont
1st Republican presidential candidate known as the Pathfinder because of his exploration of California.Republican canidate for President in 1856.

Frederick Douglass
Abolitionist spokesman and escaped slave

Dred Scott

Enslaved man who sued to gain freedom after his sojourn in a free territory.Slave who sued for his freedom under the terms of the Missouri Compromise.

Jefferson Davis
President of the Confederate States of America.

Robert E. Lee
Commander of the Army of Northern Virginia

T.J. Jackson
Known as Stonewall Lieutenant of Lee in command of a wing of the Confederate army.

Clara Barton
Civil War nurse who later established the American Red Cross

U.S. Grant

Union General who defeated Lee and was later elected president.

Geo. B. McClellan
Commander of the Army of the Potomac fired and later Democratic Presidential nominee of 1864

W.T. Sherman
Union General who captured Atlanta and marched to the sea.

Robert Gould Shaw
Commander of Massachusetts 54th black regiment killed at Fort Wagner.

Defeat of Confederate invasion of the North, the tide of the confederacy.

George Pickett
Commander of ill-fated Confederate charge on the 3rd day of Gettysburg.

Last Confederate victory in the West.

John Wilkes Booth
Assassin of Abraham Lincoln

Thaddeus Stevens
Pro freedman congressman from PA. A leader of the "black republicans" during reconstruction

Ku Klux Klan
Terrorist organization aimed at intimidating freedmen and white republicans in the south.

Black codes
Laws intended to recreate de facto slavery for blacks in the south.